When discussing gambling advertisements, some sports bettors described a number of characteristics and promotional strategies that were used by sports betting operators to attract them to place bets. Most of them that are on TV are usually adverts about new customer offers. Another promotional incentive was welcome offers, which a few participants described as an attribute that contributed to participants creating a betting account:.
Participants described how brands were associated with specific advertising strategies, and described how these strategies distinguished brands from one another. Advertisements for sports betting were found to be memorable and resulted in an increased awareness of gambling products.
Participants described marketing strategies associated with particular brands. These included memorable features that allowed them to recall details of the advertisements, including description of specific characters, betting markets, and promotions that were being implemented. They certainly worked with in-play betting because the one that sticks in my head is with Ray.
You know, that one sticks in my mind Participant One participant described how they had more trust in a betting product because it used a sports figure that they admired. Some brands created positive feelings and were perceived by bettors as more entertaining than others.
They use big named faces…so you can remember who they are and which company they are advertising I guess. I think they generally can be amusing…Paddy Power in particular. But personally, I think that is quite genius Participant One participant described how advertisements presented characters in a positive manner, suggesting that there could be success with gambling and minimizing potential risks.
Therefore, the advertisements may influence people to bet by creating a perception that there is a higher chance of winning:. The third sub-theme of promotion characteristics concerned normalization of betting. Many sports bettors commented on how prevalent and acceptable sports betting had become, especially in the context of football betting and that advertising has contributed to the normalization of gambling. For example, the wide availability of gambling advertisements, including the frequency and type of advertisements, particularly during live football matches, was seen to encourage the idea that sports betting is an activity that was typical for sports fans to take part in and it was heavily connected with the sporting activity.
One participant commented on how they were more likely to pay attention to a gambling advertisement when it was on during a football match. The alignment of the advertisement with the sports being viewed resulted in the advert receiving attention from the participant:. Some participants also discussed how gambling had become ingrained within the sport, for example:. The content of some advertisements allowed a few participants to feel more comfortable placing a bet, in part due to the relaxed nature of some adverts.
Others commented on how there were also positive qualities in the advertisement that were emphasized. Again, this could imply a feeling that there is less involvement of risk:. The videos are quite relaxed and light-hearted Participant 2. The three sub-themes for regulating gambling advertising were i responsible gambling messages, ii protecting children, and iii industry comparisons. The first sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned brand awareness.
What was evident from the interviews was the belief that online gambling companies were not concerned with protecting consumers from gambling-related harm, especially vulnerable individuals. Opinions centered on the responsible gambling warning messages in gambling advertisements. Despite many television advertisements including a warning message, participants seemed to be somewhat cynical about the usefulness of these.
Many participants raised doubts regarding the efficacy of the warnings and found them mistimed within the advert and not sufficiently long enough in duration. Participants expressed that they did not perceive the responsible gambling warning messages that appears at the end of advertisements to be an effective method of preventing problematic gambling behavior.
And that's it Participant A few participants suggested that they did not pay attention to the information provided at the end of the advertisements and also reported little change in their behavior as a result of the messages. One participant praised a particular gambling advertisement that displayed a responsible gambling message at the beginning of the advert, rather than at the end:. All adverts should start with the disclaimer at the start rather than at the end Participant 4.
The second sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned protecting children. Some participants raised concerns about the impact gambling advertising has on young people, particularly those who are not legally allowed to gamble. I think a lot of young impressionable people might be watching football with their parents Participant 9.
Additionally, some participants discussed the intrusiveness of gambling advertising on social networking sites, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, and that these advertisements may appeal to children. Underage people can have access to social media. Some perceived that gambling operators had a responsibility to ensure that young children were not exposed to gambling advertisements, for example:. I think only if you're an experienced gambler, you know what your limits are.
You know how much you should gamble and you should know, you know you should gamble responsibly. The third sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned industry comparisons. Many of the participants had negative opinions about sports betting advertising appearing during sporting events.
Participants perceived that advertising can encourage some individuals to gamble excessively, particularly problem gamblers. Some participants did not believe that the current gambling regulations were enough to protect individuals from gambling-related harm. Some participants said that they believed that gambling advertising should be banned completely, similar to that of the tobacco industry, while others made comparisons between restrictions for other products such as alcohol and fast food.
I think it comes down to individual impulsivity with gambling. Like, I think fast food advertising and stuff like that is way worse than gambling advertising myself Participant When asked for opinions on any changes that they thought should be made to gambling advertising regulations, some participants believed that advertising should be removed completely. Others discussed how it was down to each individual to ensure that they gamble responsibly, and not that of the gambling company.
Participant Other participants had the opinion that it was not just the gambling companies that needed to be doing more and it was down to the individual to take control of their gambling behavior:. Based on the thematic analysis, three broad themes emerged temptation to gamble, promotion characteristics of gambling, and regulating gambling advertising comprising of eight sub-themes in total Table 2.
One prevalent form of marketing was the advertising of betting odds, particularly in-play odds and boosted odds. Advertisements promoted these incentives to capture the attention of sports bettors and influence sports betting behavior. Furthermore, previous research has suggested that in-play sports betting has the potential to be more harmful that other forms of betting and may encourage impulse bets, especially among those experiencing gambling problems Killick and Griffiths In the present study, sports betting promotions minimized perceptions of risk and encouraged feelings of control, and participants acknowledged that these promotions influenced their overall gambling intentions.
Previous research has reported that promotions may reduce feelings of perceived risk that is usually associated with gambling Thomas et al. Because a request is initiated by the individual, it has been argued that this may result in the internalization of the locus of control Lopez-Gonzalez et al. Boosted and enhanced odds were another popular form of inducement that attracted low-risk gamblers, moderate-risk gamblers, and problem gamblers to place a bet.
Previous research has reported that on Twitter, enhanced odds were among the most frequently tweeted forms of promotion Killick and Griffiths Advertisers generate audience engagement by using technologies to reach customers with highly relevant advertisements based on what they do, while placing advertisements adjacent to contents expected to be visited by target consumers Wang These findings also support the recent evidence that has reported that bonuses, including price-related gambling promotions, have been found to be particularly persuasive for encouraging gambling behavior for those experiencing gambling-related problems Lopez-Gonzalez et al.
That is, individuals are affected by relative changes from reference price. Additionally, consumers are likely to make impulse purchases based on price or special promotional offers Park et al. Therefore, these promotions may be initiating online impulse gambling behavior. The uptake of wagering inducements has been previously found to predict impulse betting among problem gamblers and frequent sports viewers Hing et al.
The present exploratory study found these promotions appeared to change betting behavior, but further research is required to examine how such promotions change betting behavior. The popularity of social media combined with the nature of personalized targeted advertising meant that it was often difficult for participants to avoid them. It has also been argued that the promotion of gambling has become a social norm Parke et al.
Consequently, gambling is portrayed as a normal, enjoyable form of entertainment that is fun and exciting. While there is nothing inherently wrong with these associations, such marketing practices appear to lead to the expectation that the opportunity to gamble should naturally accompany all sporting activities.
It is possible that this perception of betting being a normal and arguably inextricable part of sport may influence the uptake of betting Djohari et al. When comparing the study findings across all PGSI groups, all sports bettors were in agreement that there was an over-saturation of sports betting advertising, and this exposure was heavily intertwined with their sports watching. Therefore, regulation is required to restrict the marketing of these particularly persuasive types of promotions.
Sports bettors in the present study were critical of gambling-related risk information that was presented alongside sports betting adverts. It has previously been suggested that responsible gambling messages are likely to be ignored when shown alongside mostly positive portrayals of gambling elsewhere in the advert Parke et al.
Therefore, Parke et al. Newall et al. However, further empirical research is required in order to examine the impact of responsible gambling campaigns on different media sources, for example, television advertisements. The present study has a number of limitations.
In , the UK gambling industry volunteered to remove advertisements during live sports broadcasts, excluding horse racing. Therefore, the participants may have had a greater level of exposure to advertising and marketing than if the study was replicated now. Consequently, their views, particularly towards the frequency of television advertising, may not be applicable to those who view sports betting now. The use of convenience and snowball sampling techniques in this study resulted in a high proportion of young male sports bettors.
For this reason, participants may have had varied levels of engagement with sports betting and although they were assumed to qualify and meet the aims of the study, they were not representative of all online sports bettors or the wider betting population. Previous research has found gambling advertising to have more of an impact on gambling involvement for problem gamblers when compared with non-problem gamblers e. The sample of adult sports bettors used in this study consisted of only one problem gambler.
It has previously been suggested that it is important to differentiate and understand the impact of numerous forms of advertising on different population subgroups so that educators, researchers, regulators, and legislators can respond accordingly Binde Future research could address this by exploring how responses to gambling advertisements vary between problem gamblers and non-problem gamblers.
The present study examined the perceived impact of sports betting marketing among a sample of UK sports bettors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to qualitatively examine the perceived impact of gambling marketing among UK sports bettors. The results demonstrated evidence of two distinct types of wagering inducements that were particularly influential on sports betting behavior i. These inducements were found to have distinct attributes that were attractive to the sports bettor including increased feelings of control and reduced feelings of risk that may encourage in-play sports betting.
These advertised products were found to be unavoidable, being frequently offered through the websites of online operators, television advertisements, and social media sites. Binde, P. Exploring the impact of gambling advertising: An interview study of problem gamblers. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7 4 , — Braun, V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 2 , 77— Brinson, N.
Reactance to personalization: Understanding the drivers behind the growth. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 18 2 , — Columb, D. Gambling advertising during live televised male sporting events in Ireland: A descriptive study. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine.
Advance online publication. Deans, E. The influence of marketing on the sports betting attitudes and consumption behaviours of young men: Implications for harm reduction and prevention strategies. Harm Reduction Journal, 14 , 5. Djohari, N.
Recall and awareness of gambling advertising and sponsorship in sport in the UK: A study of young people and adults. Harm Reduction Journal, 16, Duncan, P. Ferris, J. The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Gainsbury, S. Gaming-gambling convergence: research, regulation, and reactions. Gaming Law Review, 23 2 , 80— Exposure to and engagement with gambling marketing in social media: Reported impacts on moderate-risk and problem gamblers.
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30 2 , — Griffiths, M. Does advertising of gambling increase gambling addiction? International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 3 2 , 15— Google Scholar. Hanss, D. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29 2 , — Hing, N. Gambling sponsorship of sport: An exploratory study of links with gambling attitudes and intentions.
International Gambling Studies, 13 3 , — Do advertising and promotions for online gambling increase gambling consumption? An exploratory study. International Gambling Studies, 14 3 , — Adolescent exposure to gambling promotions during televised sport: An exploratory study of links with gambling intentions. Sports-embedded gambling promotions: A study of exposure, sports betting intention and problem gambling amongst adults. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 13 1 , — Understanding persuasive attributes of sports betting advertisements: A conjoint analysis of selected elements.
Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6 4 , — Does the uptake of wagering inducements predict impulse betting on sport? Journal of Behavioural Addictions, 33 2 , — Wagering advertisements and inducements: Exposure and perceived influence on betting behaviour.
Journal of Gambling Studies, 35 3 , — Holtgraves, T. Evaluating the problem gambling severity index. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25 1 , — Ipsos MORI. Interim synthesis report: The effect of gambling marketing and advertising on children, young people and vulnerable adults. Ipsos MORI Final Synthesis Report: The impact of gambling marketing advertising on children, young people and vulnerable adults. James, R. Understanding the psychology of mobile gambling: A behavioural synthesis.
British Journal of Psychology, 3 , — Killick, E. In-play sports betting: A scoping study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 17 , — Journal of Gambling Studies, 36 1 , — Lamont, M. Affective response to gambling promotions during televised sport: a qualitative analysis.
Sport Management Review, 19 3 , — Lawn, S. A literature review and gap analysis of emerging technologies and new trends in gambling. Lole, L. But what makes a useful strategy in sports betting? As you can see, one betting system provides far greater returns than the others, while one drops you out pretty quickly. The five systems are outlined below — which letter do you think each line corresponds to? Strategy 1: Bet everything, every timeBet your entire bankroll on each bet.
The advantage is that you get big returns, fast. The downside? Strategy 5: Proportional bettingBet a fraction of your bankroll in proportion to your edge. In this simulation, we used the for proportional sports betting. With this method, your bet should be your edge divided by the odds. This means winnings increase quicker than in the fixed-wager system, and losses slow down.
Which strategy is best? The correct answer is:A. Bet everythingB. Fixed wagerD.
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